This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Ernie-Paul Barrette, MD (Case Western Reserve School of Medicine); Ethan Basch, MD (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center); Samuel Basch, MD (Mt. Sinai Medical Center, NY); Steve Bent, MD (University of California, San Francisco); Edzard Ernst, MD, PhD (University of Exeter); Sadaf Hashmi, MD, MPH (Natural Standard Research Group); Jenna Hollenstein, MS, RD (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Jamie Nelsen, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Adrianne Rogers, MD (Boston University School of Medicine); David Sollars MAc, HMC (New England School of Acupuncture); Philippe Szapary, MD, MPH (University of Pennsylvania); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Candy Tsourounis, PharmD (University of California, San Francisco); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Atkinson C, Compston JE, Day NE, et al. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79(2):326-333.
Atkinson C, Warren RM, Sala E, et al. Red-clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165]. Breast Cancer Res 2004;6(3):R170-R179.
Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women. Climacteric 1999;2:85-92.
Beck V, Unterrieder E, Krenn L, et al. Comparison of hormonal activity (estrogen, androgen and progestin) of standardized plant extracts for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003;84(2-3):259-268.
Coon JT, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Trifolium pratense isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine 2007 Feb;14(2-3):153-9.
Howes J, Waring M, Huang L, et al. Long-term pharmacokinetics of an extract of isoflavones from red clover (Trifolium pratense). J Altern Complement Med 2002;8(2):135-142.
Howes JB, Sullivan D, Lai N, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of post menopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis 2000;152(1):143-147.
Howes JB, Tran D, Brillante D, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2003;5(5):325-332.
Nelson HD, Vesco KK, Haney E, et al. Nonhormonal therapies for menopausal hot flashes: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2006 May 3;295(17):2057-71.
Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 7-17-2002;288(3):321-333.
Rotem C, Kaplan B. Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. Gynecol Endocrinol 2007 Feb;23(2):117-22.
Teede HJ, McGrath BP, DeSilva L, et al. Isoflavones reduce arterial stiffness: a placebo-controlled study in men and postmenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 6-1-2003;23(6):1066-1071.
Tempfer CB, Bentz EK, Leodolter S, et al. Phytoestrogens in clinical practice: a review of the literature. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6):1243-9.
Tice JA, Ettinger B, Ensrud K, et al. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: the Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 7-9-2003;290(2):207-214.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children,
never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.