This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration: Ethan Basch, MD (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center); Samuel Basch, MD (Mt. Sinai Medical Center); Steve Bent, MD (University of California, San Francisco); Heather Boon, BScPhm, PhD (University of Toronto); Edzard Ernst, MD, PhD (University of Exeter); Ivo Foppa, MD, ScD (Harvard School of Public Health); Paul Hammerness, MD (Harvard Medical School); Jenna Hollenstein, MS, RD (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Adrianne Rogers (Boston University School of Medicine); Susanne Schadde, MD (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Jens Hasskarl, MD (Harvard Medical School); David Sollars, MAc, HMC (New England School of Acupuncture); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Candy Tsourounis, PharmD (University of California, San Francisco); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Jen Woods, BS (Northeastern University).
Abebe W. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J Clin Pharm Ther 2002;27(6):391-401.
Boerner RJ, Sommer H, Berger W, et al. Kava-Kava extract LI 150 is as effective as Opipramol and Buspirone in Generalised Anxiety Disorder--an 8-week randomized, double-blind multi-centre clinical trial in 129 out-patients. Phytomedicine 2003;10 Suppl 4:38-49.
Cagnacci A, Arangino S, Renzi A, et al. Kava-Kava administration reduces anxiety in perimenopausal women. Maturitas 2-25-2003;44(2):103-109.
Connor KM, Payne V, Davidson JR. Kava in generalized anxiety disorder: three placebo-controlled trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2006;21(5):249-53.
Connor KM, Davidson JR. A placebo-controlled study of Kava kava in generalized anxiety disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2002;17(4):185-188.
Currie BJ, Clough AR. Kava hepatotoxicity with Western herbal products: does it occur with traditional kava use? Med J Aust 2003;178(9):421-2.
Escher M, Desmeules J, Giostra E, et al. Hepatitis associated with Kava, a herbal remedy for anxiety. BMJ 1-20-2001;322(7279):139.
Garrett KM, Basmadjian G, Khan IA, et al. Extracts of kava (Piper methysticum) induce acute anxiolytic-like behavioral changes in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2003;170(1):33-41.
Geller SE, Studee L. Botanical and dietary supplements for mood and anxiety in menopausal women. Menopause 2007;14(3 Pt 1):541-9.
Pittler MH, Ernst E. Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000;20(1):84-89.
Russmann S, Lauterburg BH, Helbling A. Kava hepatotoxicity. Ann Intern Med 7-3-2001;135(1):68-69.
Schmidt P, Boehncke WH. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to kava-kava extract. Contact Dermatitis 2000;42(6):363-364.
Stevinson C, Huntley A, Ernst E. A systematic review of the safety of kava extract in the treatment of anxiety. Drug Saf 2002;25(4):251-261.
Thompson R, Ruch W, Hasenohrl RU. Enhanced cognitive performance and cheerful mood by standardized extracts of Piper methysticum (Kava-kava). Hum Psychopharmacol 2004;19(4):243-250.
Ulbricht C, Basch E, Boon H, et al. Safety review of kava (Piper methysticum) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2005 Jul;4(4):779-94.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.