This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Ethan Basch, MD (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Mary Giles, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Michael Goble, BS, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Nicole M. Maisch, PharmD (St. John's University College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions); Erica Seamon, PharmD (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); David Sollars, MAc, HMC (New England School of Acupuncture); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Verda Tunaligil, MD, MPH (Harvard School of Public Health); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Mamta Vora, PharmD (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Baillargeon L, Drouin J, Desjardins L, et al. The effects of arnica montana on bleeding time: a randomized clinical trial. Biomedical Therapy 1998;16(4):272-276.
Bergonzi MC, Bilia AR, Casiraghi A, et al. Evaluation of skin permeability of sesquiterpenes of an innovative supercritical carbon dioxide Arnica extract by HPLC/DAD/MS. Pharmazie 2005;60(1):36-38.
Brinkhaus B, Wilkens JM, Ludtke R, et al. Homeopathic arnica therapy in patients receiving knee surgery: results of three randomised double-blind trials. Complement Ther Med. 2006 Dec;14(4):237-46.
Cuzzolin L, Zaffani S, Benoni G. Safety implications regarding use of phytomedicines. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2006;62(1):37-42.
Hart O, Mullee MA, Lewith G, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of homoeopathic arnica C30 for pain and infection after total abdominal hysterectomy. J R Soc Med 1997;90(2):73-78.
Knuesel O, Weber M, Suter A. Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial. Adv Ther 2002;19(5):209-218.
Kos O, Lindenmeyer MT, Tubaro A, et al. New sesquiterpene lactones from Arnica tincture prepared from fresh flowerheads of Arnica montana. Planta Med 2005;71(11):1044-1052.
Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, et al. The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study--preliminary results. Complement Ther Med 2005;13(2):87-90.
Raschka C, Trostel Y. Effect of a homeopathic arnica preparation (D4) on delayed onset muscle soreness. Placebo-controlled crossover study. MMW Fortschr Med. 2006 Jul 20;148(29-30):35.
Robertson A, Suryanarayanan R, Banerjee A. Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomized placebo control trial. Homeopathy. 2007 Jan;96(1):17-21.
Seeley BM, Denton AB, Ahn MS, et al. Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2006;8(1):54-59.
Stevinson C, Devaraj VS, Fountain-Barber A, et al. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery. J R Soc Med 2003;96(2):60-65.
Totonchi A, Guyuron B. A randomized, controlled comparison between arnica and steroids in the management of postrhinoplasty ecchymosis and edema. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007 Jul;120(1):271-4.
Tuten C, McClung J. Reducing muscle soreness with Arnica montana: Is it effective? Alternative and Complementary Therapies 1999;5(6):369-372.
Vickers AJ, Fisher P, Smith C, et al. Homeopathic Arnica 30x is ineffective for muscle soreness after long- distance running: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin J Pain 1998;14(3):227-231.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children,
never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.