Probiotics are generally regarded as safe for human consumption. Long-term consumption of probiotics is considered safe. Few side effects have been reported in studies.
Some people experience excessive production of gas due to the corrective activity of probiotics in the colon. This is patient-specific and normally will decrease with use. Gradual increase of dosing over time is recommended to minimize this.
Probiotics should not be taken in people who are allergic to any component of a probiotic-containing product. Lactose-sensitive people may develop abdominal discomfort from dairy products containing probiotics. Caution is advised when using probiotics in neonates born prematurely or with immune deficiency.
Not enough available evidence.
Not enough available evidence.
This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); William Collinge, PhD, MPH (Collinge & Associates); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Nicole Giese, MS (Boston University); Dana A. Hackman, BS (Northeastern University); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Shannon Welch, PharmD (Northeastern University); Jen Woods, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
Bin-Nun A, Bromiker R, Wilschanski M, et al. Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates. J Pediatr. 2005 Aug;147(2):192-6.
Delia P, Sansotta G, Donato V, et al. Use of probiotics for prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea. World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Feb 14;13(6):912-5.
Gilboa Y, Bar-Hava I, Fisch B, et al. Does intravaginal probiotic supplementation increase the pregnancy rate in IVF-embryo transfer cycles? Reprod Biomed Online. 2005 Jul;11(1):71-5.
Hatakka K, Ahola AJ, Yli-Knuuttila H, et al. Probiotics reduce the prevalence of oral candida in the elderly--a randomized controlled trial. J Dent Res. 2007 Feb;86(2):125-30.
Hatakka K, Blomgren K, Pohjavuori S, et al. Treatment of acute otitis media with probiotics in otitis-prone children-a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study. Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;26(3):314-21. Epub 2007 Mar 13.
Kajander K, Hatakka K, Poussa T, et al. A probiotic mixture alleviates symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a controlled 6-month intervention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Sep 1;22(5):387-94.
Marteau P, Lemann M, Seksik P, et al. Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled GETAID trial. Gut. 2006 Jun;55(6):842-7.
McClave SA, Chang WK, Dhaliwal R, et al. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review of the literature. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006 Mar-Apr;30(2):143-56.
Rakov AL, Grinevich VB, Kriukov AE, et al. [Clinical efficacy of probiotics in complex treatment of called-up servicemen with community-acquired pneumonia] Voen Med Zh. 2006 Apr;327(4):15-22.
Salminen MK, Tynkkynen S, Rautelin H, et al. The efficacy and safety of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on prolonged, noninfectious diarrhea in HIV Patients on antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. HIV.Clin.Trials 2004;5(4):183-191.
Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, et al. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82.
Sykora J, Valeckova K, Amlerova J, et al. Effects of a specially designed fermented milk product containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 and the eradication of H. pylori in children: a prospective randomized double-blind study. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005 Sep;39(8):692-8.
Szajewska H, Mrukowicz J. Meta-analysis: non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Sep 1;22(5):365-72.
Szajewska H, Skorka A, Dylag M. Meta-analysis: Saccharomyces boulardii for treating acute diarrhoea in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb 1;25(3):257-64.
Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on the effectiveness and tolerability of a new second-line 10-day quadruple therapy after failure of a first attempt to cure Helicobacter pylori infection. Med.Sci.Monit. 2004;10(12):CR662-CR666.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.