Licensed from

Chiropractic, Spinal Manipulative Therapy, Spinal Manipulation Health Article

Attribution

Authors and Editors: This evidence-based monograph was prepared by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com)

Bibliography

DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C, et al. Unconventional medicine in the United States. Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use. N Engl J Med 1993;328(4):246-252.

Meeker WC, Haldeman S. Chiropractic: a profession at the crossroads of mainstream and alternative medicine. Ann Intern Med 2002;136(3):216-227.

Feise RJ. An inquiry into chiropractors' intention to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a telephone survey. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(3):177-182.

Nyiendo J, Haldeman S. A prospective study of 2,000 patients attending a chiropractic college teaching clinic. Med Care 1987;25(6):516-527.

Shekelle PG, Brook RH. A community-based study of the use of chiropractic services. Am J Public Health 1991;81(4):439-442.

Hawk C. An evidence-based look at chiropractic: tailoring treatment for older adults. J Gerontol Nurs 2002;28(4):6-14.

Hawk C, Long CR, Boulanger KT, et al. Chiropractic care for patients aged 55 years and older: report from a practice-based research program. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48(5):534-545.

Assendelft WJ, Bouter LM. Does the goose really lay golden eggs? A methodological review of Workmen's Compensation studies. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(3):161-168.

Cichoke AJ, West HG. Comparative low back pain study of patients treated by a chiropractic physician & those treated by a medical physician. Dig Chiro Econ 1978;Nov/Dec:118.

Stano M. A comparison of health care costs for chiropractic and medical patients. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(5):291-299.

Shekelle PG. What role for chiropractic in health care? N Engl J Med 1998;339(15):1074-1075.

Coulehan JL. Adjustment, the hands and healing. Cult Med Psychiatry 1985;9(4):353-382.

Haldeman S. The pathophysiology of the spinal subluxation. In: Goldstein M, editor. The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Washington DC: National Institutes of Health, 1975: 217-226.

Janse J. History of the development of chiropractic concepts; chiropractic terminology. In: Goldstein M, editor. The Research Status of Spinal Manipulation. Washington DC: National Institutes of Health, 1975:25-42.

Bolton PS. Reflex effects of vertebral subluxations: the peripheral nervous system. An update. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(2):101-103.

Triano J. A model for standards of care: manipulative procedures. J Manip Physiol Ther 1990;13(2):121.

Triano JJ. Standards of care: manipulation procedures. In: White AH, editor. Conservative care of low-back pain. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991:159-168.

Wardwell WI. Sounding board. The future of chiropractic. N Engl J Med 1980;302(12):688-690.

Coulehan JL. Chiropractic and the clinical art. Soc Sci Med 1985;21(4):383-390.

Kaptchuk TJ, Eisenberg DM. Chiropractic: origins, controversies, and contributions. Arch Intern Med 1998;158(20):2215-2224.

Dishman R. Review of the literature supporting a scientific basis for the chiropractic subluxation complex. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1985;8(3):163-174.

Haldeman S. The evolution and importance of spinal and chiropractic research. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(1):31-35.

Haldeman S. Spinal manipulative therapy. A status report. Clin Orthop 1983;(179):62-70.

Crelin ES. A scientific test of the chiropractic theory. Am Sci 1973;61(5):574-580.

Herzog W, Nigg BM, Read LJ. Quantifying the effects of spinal manipulations on gait using patients with low back pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11(3):151-157.

Herzog W, Conway PJ, Kawchuk GN, et al. Forces exerted during spinal manipulative therapy. Spine 1993;18(9):1206-1212.

Triano JJ, Schultz AB. Motions of the head and thorax during neck manipulations. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(9):573-583.

Triano J, Schultz AB. Loads transmitted during lumbosacral spinal manipulative therapy. Spine 1997;22(17):1955-1964.

Cramer GD, Tuck NR, Jr., Knudsen JT, et al. Effects of side-posture positioning and side-posture adjusting on the lumbar zygapophysial joints as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging: a before and after study with randomization. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(6):380-394.

Good CJ, Mikkelsen GB. Intersegmental sagittal motion in the lower cervical spine and discogenic spondylosis: a preliminary study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(9):556-564.

Nansel DD, Peneff A, Quitoriano J. Effectiveness of upper versus lower cervical adjustments with respect to the amelioration of passive rotational versus lateral-flexion end- range asymmetries in otherwise asymptomatic subjects. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(2):99-105.

Nilsson N, Christensen HW, Hartvigsen J. Lasting changes in passive range motion after spinal manipulation: a randomized, blind, controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(3):165-168.

Pollard H, Ward G. A study of two stretching techniques for improving hip flexion range of motion. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(7):443-447.

Ventura JM. Psychoneuroimmunology, the placebo effect and chiropractic. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(3):180-181.

Brennan PC, Kokjohn K, Kaltinger CJ, et al. Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory burst induced by spinal manipulation: potential role of substance P. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14(7):399-408.

Coulehan JL. The treatment act: an analysis of the clinical art in chiropractic. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14(1):5-13.

Vernon H. Chiropractic: a model of incorporating the illness behavior model in the management of low back pain patients. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14(6):379-389.

Waddell G. 1987 Volvo award in clinical sciences. A new clinical model for the treatment of low-back pain. Spine 1987;12(7):632-644.

Jamison JR. An interactive model of chiropractic practice: reconstructing clinical reality. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(6):382-388.

Jamison JR. Chiropractic holism: accessing the placebo effect. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(5):339-346.

Driscoll MD, Hall MJ. Effects of spinal manipulative therapy on autonomic activity and the cardiovascular system: a case study using the electrocardiogram and arterial tonometry. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(8):545-550.

McKnight ME, DeBoer KF. Preliminary study of blood pressure changes in normotensive subjects undergoing chiropractic care. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11(4):261-266.

Bulbulian R, Dishman JD. Spinal reflex excitability changes following lumbar spine passive flexion mobilization [abstract]. International Scientific Conference on Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine Research, Boston, MA, April 12-14, 2002.

Colloca CJ, Keller TS, Gunzburg R, et al. Neurophysiologic response to intraoperative lumbosacral spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(7):447-457.

Murphy BA, Dawson NJ, Slack JR. Sacroiliac joint manipulation decreases the H-reflex. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;35(2):87-94.

Herzog W, Scheele D, Conway PJ. Electromyographic responses of back and limb muscles associated with spinal manipulative therapy. Spine 1999;24(2):146-152.

Colloca CJ, Keller TS. Electromyographic reflex responses to mechanical force, manually assisted spinal manipulative therapy. Spine 2001;26(10):1117-1124.

Lehman GJ, Vernon H, McGill SM. Effects of a mechanical pain stimulus on erector spinae activity before and after a spinal manipulation in patients with back pain: a preliminary investigation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(6):402-406.

Gibbons PF, Gosling CM, Holmes M. Short-term effects of cervical manipulation on edge light pupil cycle time: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(7):465-469.

Briggs L, Boone WR. Effects of a chiropractic adjustment on changes in pupillary diameter: a model for evaluating somatovisceral response. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998;11(3):181-189.

McCarthy P, Clinton E, Nielsen B. Does a chiropractic manipulative thrust to an informed asymptomatic cause an ipsi- or bilateral galvanic skin response (GSR) [abstract]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(4):285.

Chinappi AS, Jr., Getzoff H. A new management model for treating structural-based disorders: dental orthopedic and chiropractic co-treatment. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(9):614-619.

Knutson GA, Jacob M. Possible manifestation of temporomandibular joint dysfunction on chiropractic cervical X-ray studies. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(1):32-37.

Chinappi AS, Jr., Getzoff HI. Possible manifestation of temporomandibular joint dysfunction on chiropractic cervical X-ray studies. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(6):421-422.

Hu JW, Vernon H, Tatourian I. Changes in neck electromyography associated with meningeal noxious stimulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(9):577-581.

Suter E, McMorland G, Herzog W, et al. Conservative lower back treatment reduces inhibition in knee-extensor muscles: a randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(2):76-80.

Nansel D, Jansen R, Cremata E, et al. Effects of cervical adjustments on lateral-flexion passive end-range asymmetry and on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamine levels. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14(8):450-456.

Vicenzino B, Collins D, Wright A. The initial effects of a cervical spine manipulative physiotherapy treatment on the pain and dysfunction of lateral epicondylalgia. Pain 1996;68(1):69-74.

Murphy BA, Dawson NJ. The assessment of intramuscular discrimination using signal detection theory: its potential contribution to chiropractic. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(9):572-576.

Glover JR, Morris JG, Khosla T. Back pain: a randomized clinical trial of rotational manipulation of the trunk. Br J Ind Med 1974;31(1):59-64.

Terrett AC, Vernon H. Manipulation and pain tolerance. A controlled study of the effect of spinal manipulation on paraspinal cutaneous pain tolerance levels. Am J Phys Med 1984;63(5):217-225.

Vernon HT, Aker P, Burns S, et al. Pressure pain threshold evaluation of the effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of chronic neck pain: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990;13(1):13-16.

Cote P, Mior SA, Vernon H. The short-term effect of a spinal manipulation on pain/pressure threshold in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(6):364-368.

Brennan PC, Triano JJ, McGregor M, et al. Enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst as a biological marker for manipulation forces: duration of the effect and association with substance P and tumor necrosis factor. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(2):83-89.

Mango AM, Wallace H, Wood J, et al. Adjustment and stimulation of T lymphocytes by substance P [abstract]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(4):285.

Christian GF, Stanton GJ, Sissons D, et al. Immunoreactive ACTH, beta-endorphin, and cortisol levels in plasma following spinal manipulative therapy. Spine 1988;13(12):1411-1417.

Vernon HT, Dhami MS, Howley TP, et al. Spinal manipulation and beta-endorphin: a controlled study of the effect of a spinal manipulation on plasma beta-endorphin levels in normal males. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1986;9(2):115-123.

Dhami MS, Mootz R. Modification of blood beta-endorphins and melatonin levels in chronic head and neck pain in male patients by spinal manipulation [abstract]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(9):612.

Vernon H. Qualitative review of studies of manipulation-induced hypoalgesia. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(2):134-138.

Sanders GE, Reinert O, Tepe R, et al. Chiropractic adjustive manipulation on subjects with acute low back pain: visual analog pain scores and plasma beta-endorphin levels. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990;13(7):391-395.

Sanders G, Tepe R, Maloney P. The effect of spinal adjustive manipulation on subjects with acute low back pain: a comparison of visual analog pain scores and serum beta endorphin levels [abstract]. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1990;13(1):58.

Hawk C, Azad A, Phongphua C, et al. Preliminary study of the effects of a placebo chiropractic treatment with sham adjustments. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(7):436-443.

Boline PD, Nelson C, Anderson AV, et al. Spinal adjustments and pharmaceutical therapy: a randomized comparative trial of treatment for muscle contracture headaches. Phase I: A pilot study [abstract]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14(5):338.

Tuchin PJ, Pollard H, Bonello R. A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(2):91-95.

Nelson CF, Bronfort G, Evans R, et al. The efficacy of spinal manipulation, amitriptyline and the combination of both therapies for the prophylaxis of migraine headache. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998;21(8):511-519.

Bove G, Nilsson N. Spinal manipulation in the treatment of episodic tension-type headache: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280(18):1576-1579.

Nilsson N, Christensen HW, Hartvigsen J. The effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(5):326-330.

Boline PD, Kassak K, Bronfort G, et al. Spinal manipulation vs. amitriptyline for the treatment of chronic tension-type headaches: a randomized clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(3):148-154.

Nilsson N. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of cervicogenic headache. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(7):435-440.

Jensen OK, Nielsen FF, Vosmar L. An open study comparing manual therapy with the use of cold packs in the treatment of post-traumatic headache. Cephalalgia 1990;10(5):241-250.

Hoyt WH, Shaffer F, Bard DA, et al. Osteopathic manipulation in the treatment of muscle-contraction headache. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1979;78(5):322-325.

Parker GB, Tupling H, Pryor DS. A controlled trial of cervical manipulation of migraine. Aust N Z J Med 1978;8(6):589-593.

Parker GB, Pryor DS, Tupling H. Why does migraine improve during a clinical trial? Further results from a trial of cervical manipulation for migraine. Aust N Z J Med 1980;10(2):192-198.

Bronfort G, Assendelft WJ, Evans R, et al. Efficacy of spinal manipulation for chronic headache: a systematic review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(7):457-466.

Bronfort G, Assendelft WJ, Bouter LM. Efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy for conditions other than neck and back pain: a systematic review and best evidence synthesis. Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation 1996;105-106.

Shekelle PG, Coulter I. Cervical spine manipulation: summary report of a systematic review of the literature and a multidisciplinary expert panel. J Spinal Disord 1997;10(3):223-228.

Vernon H, McDermaid CS, Hagino C. Systematic review of randomized clinical trials of complementary/alternative therapies in the treatment of tension-type and cervicogenic headache. Complement Ther Med 1999;7(3):142-155.

Lenhart LJ. Chiropractic management of migraine without aura: a case study. J Neuromusculoskel Syst 1995;3:20-26.

Vernon H. Spinal manipulation and headaches of cervical origin: a review of literature and presentation of cases. J Manual Med 1991;6:73-79.

Miller B, Maxwell JL, DeBoer KF. Chiropractic treatment of tension headache: a case study. J Am Chiro Assoc 1984;18(6):62-66.

Tuchin PJ. The efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in the treatment of migraine - a pilot study. Aust Chiro Osteo 1997;6(2):41-47.

Mootz RD, Dhami MS, Hess JA, et al. Chiropractic treatment of chronic episodic tension-type headache in male subjects: a case series analysis. J Can Chiro Assoc 1994;38(3):152-159.

Whittingham W, Ellis WB, Molyneux TP. The effect of manipulation (toggle recoil technique) for headaches with upper cervical joint dysfunction: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(6):369-375.

Stodolny J, Chmielewski H. Manual therapy in the treatment of patients with cervical migraine. J Manual Med 1989;4:49-51.

Vernon H. Chiropractic manipulative therapy in the treatment of headaches: a retrospective and prospective study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1982;5(3):109-112.

Bechgaard P. Late post-traumatic headache and manipulation. Br Med J 1966;(June):1419.

Cooperstein R, Perle SM, Gatterman MI, et al. Chiropractic technique procedures for specific low back conditions: characterizing the literature. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(6):407-424.

Rosner AL. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of acute low back pain: response to the guidelines prepared for the Australian Medical Health and Research Council. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(3):214-220.

Deyo RA, Weinstein JN. Low back pain. N Engl J Med 2001;344(5):363-370.

Morley J, Rosner AL, Redwood D. A case study of misrepresentation of the scientific literature: recent reviews of chiropractic. J Altern Complement Med 2001;7(1):65-78.

Vroomen PC, de Krom MC, Slofstra PD, et al. Conservative treatment of sciatica: a systematic review. J Spinal Disord 2000;13(6):463-469.

Breen A. Chiropractic for low back pain. Experts in both UK and US believe that chiropractic works. BMJ 1999;318(7178):261.

Waddell G. Chiropractic for low back pain. Evidence for manipulation is stronger than that for most orthodox medical treatments. BMJ 1999;318(7178):262.

Ernst E, Assendelft WJ. Chiropractic for low back pain. We don't know whether it does more good than harm. BMJ 1998;317(7152):160.

Assendelft WJ, Koes BW, van der Heijden GJ, et al. The effectiveness of chiropractic for treatment of low back pain: an update and attempt at statistical pooling. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(8):499-507.

Assendelft WJ, Koes BW, Knipschild PG, et al. The relationship between methodological quality and conclusions in reviews of spinal manipulation. JAMA 1995;274(24):1942-1948.

Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, et al. Spinal manipulation for low-back pain. Ann Intern Med 1992;117(7):590-598.

Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, et al. The appropriateness of spinal manipulation for low-back pain: Indications and ratings by an all-chiropractic expert panel. Rand Publication Series 1992;

Anderson R, Meeker WC, Wirick BE, et al. A meta-analysis of clinical trials of spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(3):181-194.

Rupert RL. A meta-analysis of clinical trials of spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(7):477-479.

Ottenbacher K, DiFabio RP. Efficacy of spinal manipulation/mobilization therapy. A meta-analysis. Spine 1985;10(9):833-837.

Carey TS, Garrett J, Jackman A, et al. The outcomes and costs of care for acute low back pain among patients seen by primary care practitioners, chiropractors, and orthopedic surgeons. The North Carolina Back Pain Project. N Engl J Med 1995;333(14):913-917.

Erhard RE, Delitto A, Cibulka MT. Relative effectiveness of an extension program and a combined program of manipulation and flexion and extension exercises in patients with acute low back syndrome. Phys Ther 1994;74(12):1093-1100.

Farrell JP, Twomey LT. Acute low back pain. Comparison of two conservative treatment approaches. Med J Aust 1982;1(4):160-164.

Fisher HW. Acute low back pain treated by spinal manipulation and electronic acupuncture. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(3):199-202.

Hadler NM, Curtis P, Gillings DB, et al. A benefit of spinal manipulation as adjunctive therapy for acute low-back pain: a stratified controlled trial. Spine 1987;12(7):703-706.

van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM. Conservative treatment of acute and chronic nonspecific low back pain. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the most common interventions. Spine 1997;22(18):2128-2156.

Waterworth RF, Hunter IA. An open study of diflunisal, conservative and manipulative therapy in the management of acute mechanical low back pain. N Z Med J 1985;98(779):372-375.

Foster J, Gates T, Van Arsdel G. A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraines. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(2):143.

Maher C. A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraines. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(2):143-144.

Deyo RA, Loeser JD, Bigos SJ. Herniated lumbar intervertebral disk. Ann Intern Med 1990;112(8):598-603.

Cassidy JD, Thiel HW, Kirkaldy-Willis WH. Side posture manipulation for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(2):96-103.

Zylbergold RS, Piper MC. Lumbar disc disease: comparative analysis of physical therapy treatments. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1981;62(4):176-179.

Ljunggren AE, Weber H, Larsen S. Autotraction versus manual traction in patients with prolapsed lumbar intervertebral discs. Scand J Rehabil Med 1984;16(3):117-124.

Burton AK, Tillotson KM, Cleary J. Single-blind randomised controlled trial of chemonucleolysis and manipulation in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Eur Spine J 2000;9(3):202-207.

Chrisman OD, Mittnacht A, Snook GA. A study of the results following rotatory manipulation in the lumbar intervertebral-disc syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg 1964;46(3):517-524.

Gray FJ. Combination of traction and manipulation for the lumbar disc syndrome. Med J Aust 1967;1(19):958-961.

Onel D, Tuzlaci M, Sari H, et al. Computed tomographic investigation of the effect of traction on lumbar disc herniations. Spine 1989;14(1):82-90.

Beneliyahu DJ. Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical follow-up: study of 27 patients receiving chiropractic care for cervical and lumbar disc herniations. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(9):597-606.

Hession EF, Donald GD. Treatment of multiple lumbar disk herniations in an adolescent athlete utilizing flexion distraction and rotational manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(3):185-192.

Cox JM, Hazen LJ, Mungovan M. Distraction manipulation reduction of an L5-S1 disk herniation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(5):342-346.

Richards GL, Thompson JS, Osterbauer PJ. Use of pre- and post-CT scans and clinical findings to monitor low force chiropractic care of patients with sciatic neuropathy and lumbar disc herniation: a review of two cases [abstract]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990;13(1):58.

Nordemar R, Thorner C. Treatment of acute cervical pain--a comparative group study. Pain 1981;10(1):93-101.

Sloop PR, Smith DS, Goldenberg E, et al. Manipulation for chronic neck pain. A double-blind controlled study. Spine 1982;7(6):532-535.

Howe DH, Newcombe RG, Wade MT. Manipulation of the cervical spine--a pilot study. J R Coll Gen Pract 1983;33(254):574-579.

Brodin H. Cervical pain and mobilization. Int J Rehabil Res 1984;7(2):190-191.

McKinney LA. Early mobilisation and outcome in acute sprains of the neck. BMJ 1989;299(6706):1006-1008.

Cassidy JD, Lopes AA, Yong-Hing K. The immediate effect of manipulation versus mobilization on pain and range of motion in the cervical spine: a randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(9):570-575.

Cassidy JD, Lopes AA, Yong-Hing K. The immediate effect of manipulation vs. mobilization on pain and range of motion in the cervical spine: a randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(4):279-280.

Jordan A, Bendix T, Nielsen H, et al. Intensive training, physiotherapy, or manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Spine 1998;23(3):311-318.

Wood TG, Colloca CJ, Matthews R. A pilot randomized clinical trial on the relative effect of instrumental (MFMA) versus manual (HVLA) manipulation in the treatment of cervical spine dysfunction. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(4):260-271.

Bronfort G, Evans R, Nelson B, et al. A randomized clinical trial of exercise and spinal manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine 2001;26(7):788-797.

Evans R, Bronfort G, Nelson B, et al. Two-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of spinal manipulation and two types of exercise for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine 2002;27(21):2383-2389.

Carrick FR. Cervical radiculopathy: the diagnosis and treatment of pathomechanics in the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1983;6(3):129-137.

Cassidy JD, Quon JA, LaFrance LJ, et al. The effect of manipulation on pain and range of motion in the cervical spine: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(8):495-500.

Levoska S, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S. Active or passive physiotherapy for occupational cervicobrachial disorders? A comparison of two treatment methods with a 1-year follow- up. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74(4):425-430.

Alcantara J, Plaugher G, Thornton RE, et al. Chiropractic care of a patient with vertebral subluxations and unsuccessful surgery of the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(7):477-482.

Aker PD, Gross AR, Goldsmith CH, et al. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain: systematic overview and meta-analysis. BMJ 1996;313(7068):1291-1296.

Fitz-Ritson D. The chiropractic management and rehabilitation of cervical trauma. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990;13(1):17-25.

Cassidy JD. A blinded randomized clinical trial of manual therapy and physiotherapy for chronic back and neck complaints: physical outcome measures. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(5):332-333.

van der Heijden GJ, Beurskens AJ, Koes BW, et al. The efficacy of traction for back and neck pain: a systematic, blinded review of randomized clinical trial methods. Phys Ther 1995;75(2):93-104.

Hurwitz EL, Aker PD, Adams AH, et al. Manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine. A systematic review of the literature. Spine 1996;21(15):1746-1760.

Di Fabio RP. Manipulation of the cervical spine: risks and benefits. Phys Ther 1999;79(1):50-65.

Murphy DR. Chiropractic rehabilitation of the cervical spine. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(6):404-408.

Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H, Harber P, et al. A randomized trial of chiropractic manipulation and mobilization for patients with neck pain: clinical outcomes from the UCLA neck-pain study. Am J Public Health 2002;92(10):1634-1641.

Shekelle P. Cervical spine manipulation was not better than mobilization for improving outcomes in neck pain. ACP J Club 2003;138(2):48.

Renaud CI, Pichette D. Chiropractic management of bronchial asthma: a literature review. J Chiropractic 1990;27:25-26.

Lane DJ, Lane TV. Alternative and complementary medicine for asthma. Thorax 1991;46(11):787-797.

Bronfort G, Evans RL, Kubic P, et al. Chronic pediatric asthma and chiropractic spinal manipulation: A prospective clinical series and randomized clinical pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(6):369-377.

Balon J, Aker PD, Crowther ER, et al. A comparison of active and simulated chiropractic manipulation as adjunctive treatment for childhood asthma. N Engl J Med 1998;339(15):1013-1020.

Jongeward BV. Chiropractic manipulation for childhood asthma. N Engl J Med 1999;340(5):391.

Nielsen NH, Bronfort G, Bendix T, et al. Chronic asthma and chiropractic spinal manipulation: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25(1):80-88.

Bronfort G. Chiropractic, asthma and the placebo effect. The final results of a randomized clinical trial.[abstract]. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1991;14(5):338.

Jamison JR, Leskovec K, Lepore S, et al. Asthma in a chiropractic clinic: a pilot study. J Aust Chiropractors Assoc 1986;16(4):137-143.

Davis PT, Hulbert JR, Kassak KM, et al. Comparative efficacy of conservative medical and chiropractic treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized clinical trail. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998;21(5):317-326.

Hafner E, Kendall J, Kendall P. Comparative efficacy of conservative medical and chiropractic treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized clinical trial (letter). J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(5):348-349.

Davis PT, Kassak KM. Outcomes of chiropractic and allopathic care in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: a report on a pilot study. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation, Chicago, IL, Apr 30-May 1, 1993 (Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research, Arlington, VA): 64.

Sucher BM. Palpatory diagnosis and manipulative management of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1994;94(8):647-663.

Beneliyahu DJ. Chiropractic management and manipulative therapy for MRI documented cervical disk herniation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(3):177-185.

Hughes BL. Management of cervical disk syndrome utilizing manipulation under anesthesia. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(3):174-181.

Miller WD. Treatment of visceral disorders by manipulative therapy. In: Goldstein M, editor. The Research Status of Spinal Manipulative Therapy. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1975: 295-301.

Howell RK, Allen TW, Kappler RE. The influence of osteopathic manipulative therapy in the management of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1975;74(8):757-760.

Masarsky CS, Weber M. Chiropractic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11(6):505-510.

Wreje U, Nordgren B, Aberg H. Treatment of pelvic joint dysfunction in primary care--a controlled study. Scand J Prim Health Care 1992;10(4):310-315.

Browning JE. Chiropractic distractive decompression in treating pelvic pain and multiple system pelvic organic dysfunction. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989;12(4):265-274.

Hawk C, Long C, Azad A. Chiropractic care for women with chronic pelvic pain: a prospective single-group intervention study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(2):73-79.

Keating JC, Jr. Chiropractic care for women with chronic pain: a prospective single- group intervention study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(6):424.

Browning JE. Pelvic pain and organic dysfunction in a patient with low back pain: response to distractive manipulation: a case presentation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1987;10(3):116-121.

Pikalov AA, Kharin VV. Use of spinal manipulative therapy in the treatment of duodenal ulcer: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(5):310-313.

Hitchcock ME. The manipulative approach to the management of dysmenorrhea. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1976;75:97-106.

Thomason PR, Fisher BL, Carpenter PA, et al. Effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1979;2(3):140-145.

Kokjohn K, Schmid DM, Triano JJ, et al. The effect of spinal manipulation on pain and prostaglandin levels in women with primary dysmenorrhea. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(5):279-285.

Hondras MA, Long CR, Brennan PC. Spinal manipulative therapy versus a low force mimic maneuver for women with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, observer-blinded, clinical trial. Pain 1999;81(1-2):105-114.

Boesler D, Warner M, Alpers A, et al. Efficacy of high-velocity low-amplitude manipulative technique in subjects with low-back pain during menstrual cramping. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1993;93(2):203-204.

Liebl NA, Butler LM. A chiropractic approach to the treatment of dysmenorrhea. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1990;13(2):101-106.

McCain GA. Nonmedicinal treatments in primary fibromyalgia. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1989;15(1):73-90.

Blunt KL, Rajwani MH, Guerriero RC. The effectiveness of chiropractic management of fibromyalgia patients: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(6):389-399.

Schneider M. The effectiveness of chiropractic management of fibromyalgia patients. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998;21(4):307.

Hains G, Hains F. A combined ischemic compression and spinal manipulation in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a preliminary estimate of dose and efficacy. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(4):225-230.

Crawford JP, Hickson GS, Wiles MR. The management of hypertensive disease: a review of spinal manipulation and the efficacy of conservative therapeusis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1986;9(1):27-32.

Yates RG, Lamping DL, Abram NL, et al. Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11(6):484-488.

Gemmell HA. Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989;12(3):240.

Osterbauer PJ. Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety: a randomized and controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14(1):74-77.

Nykoliation J. Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety: a randomized and controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14(1):75-77.

Osterbauer PJ, Derickson KL, Peles JD, et al. Three-dimensional head kinematics and clinical outcome of patients with neck injury treated with spinal manipulative therapy: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(8):501-511.

Richards D. Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety: a randomized and controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(3):210-212.

Morgan JP, Dickey JL, Hunt HH, et al. A controlled trial of spinal manipulation in the management of hypertension. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1985;85(5):308-313.

Plaugher G, Long CR, Alcantara J, et al. Practice-based randomized controlled-comparison clinical trial of chiropractic adjustments and brief massage treatment at sites of subluxation in subjects with essential hypertension: pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002;25(4):221-239.

Celander E, Koenig AJ, Celander DR. Effect of osteopathic manipulative therapy on autonomic tone as evidenced by blood pressure changes and activity of the fibrinolytic system. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1968;67(9):1037-1038.

Fichera AP, Celander DR. Effect of osteopathic manipulative therapy on autonomic tone as evidenced by blood pressure changes and activity of the fibrinolytic system. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1969;68(10):1036-1038.

Northrup TL. Manipulative management of hypertension. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1961;60:973-978.

Plaugher G, Bachman TR. Chiropractic management of a hypertensive patient. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(8):544-549.

Selano JL, Hightower BC, Pfleger B, et al. The effects of specific upper cervical adjustments on the CD4 counts of HIV positive patients. Chiropractic Res J 1994;3(1):1.

Hughes S, Bolton J. Is chiropractic an effective treatment in infantile colic? Arch Dis Child 2002;86(5):382-384.

Wiberg JM, Nordsteen J, Nilsson N. The short-term effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of infantile colic: a randomized controlled clinical trial with a blinded observer. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(8):517-522.

Olafsdottir E, Forshei S, Fluge G, et al. Randomised controlled trial of infantile colic treated with chiropractic spinal manipulation. Arch Dis Child 2001;84(2):138-141.

Kemper KJ. Randomised controlled trial of infantile colic treated with chiropractic spinal manipulation. J Pediatrics 2001;139(3):467.

Grunnet-Nilsson N, Wiberg J. Infantile colic and chiropractic spinal manipulation. Arch Dis Child 2001;85(3):268.

Nilsson N. Infant colic and chiropractic. Eur J Chiropractic 1985;33:264-265.

Klougart N, Nilsson N, Jacobsen J. Infantile colic treated by chiropractors: a prospective study of 316 cases. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989;12(4):281-288.

Straub WF, Spino MP, Alattar MM, et al. The effect of chiropractic care on jet lag of Finnish junior elite athletes. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(3):191-198.

Leboeuf C, Brown P, Herman A, et al. Chiropractic care of children with nocturnal enuresis: a prospective outcome study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14(2):110-115.

Reed WR, Beavers S, Reddy SK, et al. Chiropractic management of primary nocturnal enuresis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(9):596-600.

Keating JC. Chiropractic management of primary nocturnal enuresis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(9):638-641.

Gemmell HA, Jacobson BH. Chiropractic management of enuresis: time-series descriptive design. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989;12(5):386-389.

Sawyer CE, Evans RL, Boline PD, et al. A feasibility study of chiropractic spinal manipulation versus sham spinal manipulation for chronic otitis media with effusion in children. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(5):292-298.

Froehle RM. Ear infection: a retrospective study examining improvement from chiropractic care and analyzing for influencing factors. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(3):169-177.

Fallon JM. The role of the chiropractic adjustment in the care and treatment of 332 children with otitis media. J Clin Chiro Pediatr 1997;2(2):167-183.

Wells MR, Giantinoto S, D'Agate D, et al. Standard osteopathic manipulative treatment acutely improves gait performance in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1999;99(2):92-98.

Elster EL. Upper cervical chiropractic management of a patient with Parkinson's disease: a case report. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(8):573-577.

Peterson KB. The effects of spinal manipulation on the intensity of emotional arousal in phobic subjects exposed to a threat stimulus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(9):602-606.

Jansen RD. The effects of spinal manipulation on the intensity of emotional arousal in phobic subjects exposed to threat stimulus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998;21(6):429-432.

Milus TB. The effects of spinal manipulation on the intensity of emotional arousal in phobic subjects exposed to threat stimulus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998;21(6):432-434.

Noll DR, Shores J, Bryman PN, et al. Adjunctive osteopathic manipulative treatment in the elderly hospitalized with pneumonia: a pilot study. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1999;99(3):143-6, 151-2.

Walsh MJ, Polus BI. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of chiropractic therapy on premenstrual syndrome. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(9):582-585.

Hubbs EC. Vertebral subluxation and premenstrual tension syndrome: a case study. Research Forum 1986;2:100-102.

Kline CA. Osteopathic manipulative therapy, antibiotics, and supportive therapy in respiratory infections in children: comparative study. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1965;65(3):278-281.

Belcastro MR, Backes CR, Chila AG. Bronchiolitis: a pilot study of osteopathic manipulative treatment, bronchodilators, and other therapy. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1984;83(9):672-676.

Purse FM. Manipulative therapy of upper respiratory infections in children. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1966;65(9):964-972.

Schmidt IC. Osteopathic manipulative therapy as a primary factor in the management of upper, middle, and pararespiratory infections. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1982;81(6):382-388.

Pistolese RA. Epilepsy and seizure disorders: a review of literature relative to chiropractic care of children. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(3):199-205.

van der Heijden GJ, van der Windt DA, de Winter AF. Physiotherapy for patients with soft tissue shoulder disorders: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. BMJ 1997;315(7099):25-30.

Winters JC, Sobel JS, Groenier KH, et al. Comparison of physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection for treating shoulder complaints in general practice: randomised, single blind study. BMJ 1997;314(7090):1320-1325.

Winters JC, Jorritsma W, Groenier KH, et al. Treatment of shoulder complaints in general practice: long term results of a randomised, single blind study comparing physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection. BMJ 1999;318(7195):1395-1396.

Thomas D, Williams RA, Smith DS. The frozen shoulder: a review of manipulative treatment. Rheumatol Rehabil 1980;19(3):173-179.

Quigley TB. Treatment of checkrein shoulder by use of manipulation and cortisone. JAMA 1956;161:850-854.

Moreau CE, Moreau SR. Chiropractic management of a professional hockey player with recurrent shoulder instability. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(6):425-430.

Pellow JE, Brantingham JW. The efficacy of adjusting the ankle in the treatment of subacute and chronic grade I and grade II ankle inversion sprains. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(1):17-24.

O'Reilly A, Pollard H. TMJ pain and chiropractic adjustment - a pilot study. Chiropractic J Aust 1996;26(4):125-129.

Chinappi AS, Jr., Getzoff H. The dental-chiropractic cotreatment of structural disorders of the jaw and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(7):476-481.

Alcantara J, Plaugher G, Klemp DD, et al. Chiropractic care of a patient with temporomandibular disorder and atlas subluxation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002;25(1):63-70.

Chinappi AS, Jr., Getzoff H. Chiropractic/dental cotreatment of lumbosacral pain with temporomandibular joint involvement. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(9):607-612.

Stephens D, Mealing D, Pollard H, et al. Treatment of visual field loss by spinal manipulation: a report on 17 patients. J Neuromus Sys 1998;6(2):53-66.

Gorman RF. Automated static perimetry in chiropractic. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(7):481-487.

Gorman RF. Monocular visual loss after closed head trauma: immediate resolution associated with spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(5):308-314.

Stephens D, Gorman F. The prospective treatment of visual perception deficit by chiropractic spinal manipulation: a report on two juvenile patients. Chiropr J Aust 1996;26(3):82-88.

Stephens D, Gorman F, Bilton D. The step phenomenon in the recovery of vision with spinal manipulation: a report on two 13-yr-olds treated together. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(9):628-633.

Wingfield BR, Gorman RF. Treatment of severe glaucomatous visual field deficit by chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy: a prospective case study and discussion. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(6):428-434.

Mealy K, Brennan H, Fenelon GC. Early mobilization of acute whiplash injuries. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986;292(6521):656-657.

Fitz-Ritson D, Filonenko N, Salansky N. Efficacy of low energy laser therapy for extensor neck muscles and sleep pattern improvement after "whiplash" injury [abstract]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(4):277-278.

Fitz-Ritson D. Phasic exercises for cervical rehabilitation after "whiplash" trauma. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(1):21-24.

Tuling JR, Crowther ET, McCord P. Clinical considerations in the chiropractic management of the patient with Marfan syndrome. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(7):498-502.

Mirtz TA. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Clinical recognition and preventive management in chiropractic acute care practice. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(7):467-473.

Keating JC, Jr. The chiropractor's role in pain management for oncology patients. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(6):431-432.

Dalby BJ. Chiropractic diagnosis and treatment of closed head trauma. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(6):392-400.

Muramatsu K, Kawai S, Akino T, et al. Treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome using manipulation therapy and regional anesthesia. J Trauma 1998;44(1):189-192.

Eriksen K. Effects of upper cervical correction on chronic constipation. Chiropractic Res J 1994;3(1):12.

Page SA, Verhoef MJ. The use of complementary therapies, including cannabis, by people with MS. 8th Annual Symposium on Complementary Health Care, December 6-8 2001;

Kirby SL. A case study: the effects of chiropractic on multiple sclerosis. Chiropractic Res J 1994;3(1):16.

Stephens D, Pollard H, Bilton D, et al. Bilateral simultaneous optic nerve dysfunction after pariorbital trauma: recovery of vision in association with chiropractic spinal manipulation therapy. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics 1999;22(9):615-621.

Gorman RF. The treatment of presumptive optic nerve ischemia by spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(3):172-177.

Terrett AGJ, Gorman RF. The eye, the cervical spine, and spinal manipulative therapy: a review of the literature. Chiropract Technique 1995;7:43-54.

Radjieski JM, Lumley MA, Cantieri MS. Effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment of length of stay for pancreatitis: a randomized pilot study. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1998;98(5):264-272.

Sleszynski SL, Kelso AF. Comparison of thoracic manipulation with incentive spirometry in preventing postoperative atelectasis. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1993;93(8):834-835.

Jarski RW, Loniewski EG, Williams J, et al. The effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment as complementary therapy following surgery: a prospective, match- controlled outcome study. Altern Ther Health Med 2000;6(5):77-81.

Jarski RW, Loniewski EG, Williams J, et al. Osteopathic manipulative treatment as complementary therapy following surgery: a prospective, match-controlled outcome study. International Scientific Conference on Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine Research, Boston, MA, April 12-14, 2002.

Lantz CA, Chen J. Effect of chiropractic intervention on small scoliotic curves in younger subjects: A time-series cohort design. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(6):385-393.

Snow GJ. Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spinal stenosis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(4):300-304.

Schiller L. Effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy in the treatment of mechanical thoracic spine pain: a pilot randomized clinical trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001;24(6):394-401.

Gorman RG, Anderson RL, Bilton D, et al. Case report: spinal strain and visual perception deficit. Chiropr J Aust 1994;24:131-141.

Stephens D, Gorman RF. Does 'normal' vision improve with spinal manipulation? J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(6):415-418.

Senstad O, Leboeuf-Yde C, Borchgrevink C. Frequency and characteristics of side effects of spinal manipulative therapy. Spine 1997;22(4):435-441.

Leboeuf-Yde C, Hennius B, Rudberg E, et al. Side effects of chiropractic treatment: a prospective study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(8):511-515.

Senstad O, Leboeuf-Yde C, Borchgrevink CF. Side-effects of chiropractic spinal manipulation: types frequency, discomfort and course. Scand J Prim Health Care 1996;14(1):50-53.

Gatterman MI. Standards of practice relative to complications of and contraindications to spinal manipulative therapy. J Can Chiropractic Assoc 1991;35(4):232-236.

Colloca CJ, Fuhr AW. Safety in chiropractic practice. Part II: Treatment to the upper neck and the rate of cerebrovascular incidents. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997;20(8):567-568.

Vautravers P, Maigne JY. Cervical spine manipulation and the precautionary principle. Joint Bone Spine 2000;67(4):272-276.

Martienssen J, Nilsson N. Cerebrovascular accidents following upper cervical manipulation: the importance of age, gender and technique. Am J Chiropractic Med 1989;2(4):160-163.

Schmitt H. Anatomical structure of the cervical spine with reference to the pathology of manipulation complications. J Man Med 1991;6:93-101.

Norris JW, Beletsky V, Nadareishvili ZG. Sudden neck movement and cervical artery dissection. The Canadian Stroke Consortium. CMAJ 2000;163(1):38-40.

Ernst E. Life-threatening complications of spinal manipulation. Stroke 2001;32(3):809-810.

Kleynhans AM. Complications and contraindications to spinal manipulative therapy. In: Haldeman S, editor. Modern developments in the principles and practice of chiropractic. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980: 359-384.

Michaeli A. Reported occurrence and nature of complications following manipulative physiotherapy in South Africa. Aust J Physiotherapy 1993;39(4):309-316.

Ladermann JP. Cerebrovascular accidents related to chiropractic care: further considerations. Eur J Chiropr 1990;38:63-68.

Rivett DA, Milburn P. A prospective study of complications of cervical spine manipulation. J Manual Manip Ther 1996;4(4):166-170.

Klougart N, Leboeuf-Yde C, Rasmussen LR. Safety in chiropractic practice. Part II: Treatment to the upper neck and the rate of cerebrovascular incidents. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(9):563-569.

Kapral MK, Bondy SJ. Cervical manipulation and risk of stroke. CMAJ 2001;165(7):907-908.

Lauretti WJ. Clarifying chiropractic manipulation risks. CMAJ 2002;166(7):886.

Di Duro JO. Vertebral artery dissection and pontine infarct after chiropractic manipulation--a reply. Am J Emerg Med 2001;19(7):601-602.

Dvorak J, Orelli F. How dangerous is manipulation to the cervical spine? Case report and results of a survey. Manual Med 1985;2:1-4.

Dvorak J, Baumgartner H, Burn L, et al. Consensus and recommendations as to the side-effects and complications of manual therapy of the cervical spine. J Manual Med 1991;6:117-118.

Patijn J. Complications in manual medicine: a review of the literature. J Manual Med 1991;6:89-92.

Haynes MJ. Stroke following cervical manipulation in Perth. Chiropractic J Aust 1994;24(2):42-46.

Hosek RS, Schram SB, Silverman H, et al. Cervical manipulation. JAMA 1981;245(9):922.

Jaskoviak PA. Complications arising from manipulation of the cervical spine. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1980;3(4):213-219.

Klougart N, Leboeuf-Yde C, Rasmussen LR. Safety in chiropractic practice, Part I; The occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents after manipulation to the neck in Denmark from 1978-1988. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(6):371-377.

Coulter ID, Hurwitz EL, Adams AH, et al. The appropriateness of manipulation and mobilization of the cervial spine. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1996: 1-16.

Carey PF. Report on the occurence of the cerebral vascular accidents in chiropractic practice. J Can Chiropractor Assoc 1993;37(2):104-106.

Terrett AG, Kleynhans AM. Complications from manipulation of the low back. Chiropractic J Aust 1992;22(4):129-140.

Smith WS, Johnston SC, Skalabrin EJ, et al. Spinal manipulative therapy is an independent risk factor for vertebral artery dissection. Neurology 2003;60(9):1424-1428.

Rothwell DM, Bondy SJ, Williams JI. Chiropractic manipulation and stroke: a population-based case-control study. Stroke 2001;32(5):1054-1060.

Saeed AB, Shuaib A, Al Sulaiti G, et al. Vertebral artery dissection: warning symptoms, clinical features and prognosis in 26 patients. Can J Neurol Sci 2000;27(4):292-296.

Dabbs V, Lauretti WJ. A risk assessment of cervical manipulation vs. NSAIDs for the treatment of neck pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(8):530-536.

Rosner AL. Chiropractic manipulation and stroke. Stroke 2001;32(9):2207-2208.

Leape LL. Error in medicine. JAMA 1994;272(23):1851-1857.

Ernst E, White A. Life-threatening adverse reactions after acupuncture? A systematic review. Pain 1997;71(2):123-126.

Anonymous. Malpractice: cerebral hemorrhage attributed to chiropractic adjustment. JAMA 1935;105:1714.

Anonymous. Bureau of legal medicine and legislation. Malpractice: death resulting from chiropractic treatment of headache [abstract]. JAMA 1937;109(3):233-234.

Terrett AG. Misuse of the literature by medical authors in discussing spinal manipulative therapy injury. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18(4):203-210.

Cashley MA. Cervicocephalic artery dissections and chiropractic manipulations. Lancet 1993;341(8854):1213-1214.

Bohm J. Cervicocephalic artery dissections and chiropractic manipulations. Lancet 1993;341(8854):1214.

Leboeuf-Yde C, Rasmussen LR, Klougart N. The risk of over-reporting spinal manipulative therapy-induced injuries: a description of some cases that failed to burden the statistics. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(8):536-538.

Crawford JP, Hwang BY, Asselbergs PJ, et al. Vascular ischemia of the cervical spine: a review of relationship to therapeutic manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1984;7(3):149-155.

Berciano J, Coria F. Occipitoatlantal instability: a hemodynamic cause of vertebrobasilar ischemia after neck motion. Stroke 1992;23(6):921.

Barrett AJ, Breen AC. Adverse effects of spinal manipulation. J R Soc Med 2000;93(5):258-259.

Ernst E. Spinal manipulation: its safety is uncertain. CMAJ 2002;166(1):40-41.

Assendelft WJ, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG. Complications of spinal manipulation: a comprehensive review of the literature. J Fam Pract 1996;42(5):475-480.

Ernst E. Prospective investigations into the safety of spinal manipulation. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001;21(3):238-242.

Rivett DA, Milburn P. Complications arising from spinal manipulative therapy in New Zealand. Physiotherapy 1997;83(12):626-632.

Lynch P. Incidence of neurological injury following neck manipulation. Ir Med J 1998;91:130.

Hipp E. Gefahren der chiropraktischen und osteopathischen behandlung. Med Klin 1961;23:1020-1022.

Abbot NC, Hill M, Barnes J, et al. Uncovering suspected adverse effects of complementary and alternative medicine. Int J Risk Safety Med 1998;11:99-106.

Stevinson C, Honan W, Cooke B, et al. Neurological complications of cervical spine manipulation. J R Soc Med 2001;94(3):107-110.

Lee KP, Carlini WG, McCormick GF, et al. Neurologic complications following chiropractic manipulation: a survey of California neurologists. Neurology 1995;45(6):1213-1215.

Jones J. Neurologists warn about link between chiropractic, stroke. CMAJ 2002;166(6):794.

Australian Physiotherapy Association. Protocol for pre-manipulative testing of the cervical spine. Aust J Physiother 1988;34:97-100.

Rivett DA. The pre-manipulative vertebral artery testing protocol: a brief review. New Zealand J Physiother 1995;9-12.

Senstad O, Leboeuf-Yde C, Borchgrevink C. Predictors of side effects to spinal manipulative therapy. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(7):441-445.

Refshauge KM. Rotation: a valid premanipulative dizziness test? Does it predict safe manipulation? J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(1):15-19.

Bolton PS, Stick PE, Lord RS. Failure of clinical tests to predict cerebral ischemia before neck manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1989;12(4):304-307.

Cote P, Kreitz BG, Cassidy JD, et al. The validity of the extension-rotation test as a clinical screening procedure before neck manipulation: a secondary analysis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1996;19(3):159-164.

Hufnagel A, Hammers A, Schonle PW, et al. Stroke following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. J Neurol 1999;246(8):683-688.

McGregor M, Haldeman S, Kohlbeck FJ. Vertebrobasilar compromise associated with cervical manipulation. Top Clin Chiropr 1995;2(3):63-73.

Haldeman S, Carey P, Townsend M, et al. Arterial dissections following cervical manipulation: the chiropractic experience. CMAJ 2001;165(7):905-906.

Haldeman S, Kohlbeck FJ, McGregor M. Risk factors and precipitating neck movements causing vertebrobasilar artery dissection after cervical trauma and spinal manipulation. Spine 1999;24(8):785-794.

Nadgir RN, Loevner LA, Ahmed T, et al. Simultaneous bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation: case report and review of the literature. Neuroradiology 2003;45(5):311-314.

Jeret JS, Bluth M. Stroke following chiropractic manipulation. Report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Cerebrovasc Dis 2002;13(3):210-213.

Boudin G, Barbizet J, Pepin B, et al. Syndrome grave du tronc cerebral apres manipulations cervicales. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société Médicale des Hôpital de Paris 1957;73:562-566.

Mehalic T, Farhat SM. Vertebral artery injury from chiropractic manipulation of the neck. Surg Neurol 1974;2(2):125-129.

Dvorak J, von Orelli F. [The frequency of complications after manipulation of the cervical spine (case report and epidemiology (author's transl)]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1982;71(2):64-69.

Gray J, Phillips SJ, Maloney WJ. Vertebral artery dissection following cervical chiropractic manipulation. Nova Scotia Med J 1989;68:30-32.

Phillips SJ, Maloney WJ, Gray J. Pure motor stroke due to vertebral artery dissection. Can J Neurol Sci 1989;16(3):348-351.

Nakamura CT, Lau JM, Polk NO, et al. Vertebral artery dissection caused by chiropractic manipulation. J Vasc Surg 1991;14(1):122-124.

Simmons KC, Soo YS, Walker G, et al. Trauma to the vertebral artery related to neck manipulation. Med J Aust 1982;1(4):187-188.

Vibert D, Rohr-Le Floch J, Gauthier G. Vertigo as manifestation of vertebral artery dissection after chiropractic neck manipulations. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 1993;55(3):140-142.

Cortazzo JM, Tom KB. Vertebral artery dissection following chiropractic manipulation. Am J Emerg Med 1998;16(6):619-620.

Parenti G, Orlandi G, Bianchi M, et al. Vertebral and carotid artery dissection following chiropractic cervical manipulation. Neurosurg Rev 1999;22(2-3):127-129.

Parwar BL, Fawzi AA, Arnold AC, et al. Horner's syndrome and dissection of the internal carotid artery after chiropractic manipulation of the neck. Am J Ophthalmol 2001;131(4):523-524.

Cellerier P, Georget AM. [Dissection of the vertebral arteries after manipulation of the cervical spine. Apropos of a case]. J Radiol 1984;65(3):191-196.

Murthy JM, Naidu KV. Aneurysm of the cervical internal carotid artery following chiropractic manipulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51(9):1237-1238.

Beatty RA. Dissecting hematoma of the internal carotid artery following chiropractic cervical manipulation. J Trauma 1977;17(3):248-249.

Raskind R, North CM. Vertebral artery injuries following chiropractic cervical spine manipulation--case reports. Angiology 1990;41(6):445-452.

Watson NA. Acute brainstem stroke during neck manipulation. BMJ 1984;288:641.

Dvorak J, Orelli F. How dangerous is manipulation to the cervical spine? Case report and results of an inquiry. Manuelle Medizin 1982;20:44-48.

Boshes LD. Vascular accidents associated with neck manipulation. JAMA 1959;171:1602.

Siegel D, Neiders T. Vertebral artery dissection and pontine infarct after chiropractic manipulation. Am J Emerg Med 2001;19(2):171-172.

Anonymous. Malpractice: death resulting from chiropractic treatment for headache [Medicolegal abstract]. JAMA 1934;103:1260.

Chen TW, Chen ST. [Brainstem stroke induced by chiropractic neck manipulation--a case report]. Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 1987;40(6):557-562.

Carmody E, Buckley P, Hutchinson M. Basilar artery occlusion following chiropractic cervical manipulation. Ir Med J 1987;80(9):259-260.

Braun IF, Pinto RS, De Filipp GJ, et al. Brain stem infarction due to chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. South Med J 1983;76(12):1507-1510.

Sullivan EC. Brain stem stroke syndromes from cervical adjustments: report on five cases. J Chiro Research Clin Invest 1992;8(1):12-16.

Davidson KC, Weiford EC, Dixon GD. Traumatic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm following chiropractic manipulation. Radiology 1975;115(3):651-652.

Dunne JW, Conacher GN, Khangure M, et al. Dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral arteries following cervical manipulation: a case report. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987;50(3):349-353.

Kunkle EC, Muller JC, Odum GL. Traumatic brain-stem thrombosis: report of a case and analysis of mechanism of injury. Ann Intern Med 1952;36:1329-1335.

Jentzen JM, Amatuzio J, Peterson GF. Complications of cervical manipulation: a case report of fatal brainstem infarct with review of the mechanisms and predisposing factors. J Forensic Sci 1987;32(4):1089-1094.

Horn SW. The "Locked-In" syndrome following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. Ann Emerg Med 1983;12(10):648-650.

Daneshmend TK, Hewer RL, Bradshaw JR. Acute brain stem stroke during neck manipulation. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984;288(6412):189.

Ford FR, Clark D. Thrombosis of the basilar artery with softenings in the cerebellum and brain stem due to manipulation of the neck. A report of two cases with one post-mortem examination. Reasons are given to prove that damage to the vertebral arteries is responsible. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1956;98:37-42.

Pribek RA. Brain stem vascular accident following neck manipulation. Wis Med J 1963;62(3):141-143.

Povlsen UJ, Kjaer L, Arlien-Soborg P. Locked-in syndrome following cervical manipulation. Acta Neurol Scand 1987;76(6):486-488.

Nyberg-Hansen R, Loken AC, Tenstad O. Brainstem lesion with coma for five years following manipulation of the cervical spine. J Neurol 1978;218(2):97-105.

Mueller S, Sahs AL. Brain stem dysfunction related to cervical manipulation. Report of three cases. Neurology (Minneap) 1976;26(6 PT 1):547-550.

Lorenz R, Vogelsang HG. [Thrombosis of the basilar artery following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical vertebral column]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1972;97(2):36-43.

Parkin PJ, Wallis WE, Wilson JL. Vertebral artery occlusion following manipulation of the neck. N Z Med J 1978;88(625):441-443.

Goodbody RA. Proceedings: Fatal post-traumatic vertebro-basilar ischaemia. J Clin Pathol 1976;29(1):86-87.

Krueger BR, Okazaki H. Vertebral-basilar distribution infarction following chiropractic cervical manipulation. Mayo Clin Proc 1980;55(5):322-332.

Robertson JT. Neck manipulation as a cause of stroke. Stroke 1981;12:1.

Sherman DG, Easton JD, Hart RG. Neck manipulation as a cause of stroke. Stroke 1982;13:260.

Lyness SS, Wagman AD. Neurological deficit following cervical manipulation. Surg Neurol 1974;2(2):121-124.

Kanshepolsky J, Danielson H, Flynn RE. Vertebral artery insufficiency and cerebellar infarct due to manipulation of the neck. Report of a case. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 1972;37(2):62-66.

Fritz VU, Maloon A, Tuch P. Neck manipulation causing stroke. Case reports. S Afr Med J 1984;66(22):844-846.

Terrett AG. Vascular accidents from cervical spine manipulation: report of 107 cases. J Aust Chiro Assoc 1987;17(1):15-24.

Smith RA, Estridge MN. Neurologic complications of head and neck manipulations. Report of two cases. JAMA 1962;182(5):528-531.

Braun IF, Pinto RS, De Filipp GJ, et al. Brain stem infarction due to chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. South Med J 1983;76(9):1199-1201.

Schellhas KP, Latchaw RE, Wendling LR, et al. Vertebrobasilar injuries following cervical manipulation. JAMA 1980;244(13):1450-1453.

Okawara S, Nibbelink D. Vertebral artery occlusion following hyperextension and rotation of the head. Stroke 1974;5(5):640-642.

Schwarz GA, Geiger JK, Spano AV. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome of wallenberg after chiropractic manipulation. Arch Intern Med 1956;97:352-354.

Frumkin LR, Baloh RW. Wallenberg's syndrome following neck manipulation. Neurology 1990;40(4):611-615.

Cook JW, Sanstead JK. Wallenberg's syndrome following self-induced manipulation. Neurology 1991;41(10):1695-1696.

Alimi Y, Tonolli I, Di Mauro P, et al. [Manipulations of cervical vertebrae and trauma of the vertebral artery. Report of two cases]. J Mal Vasc 1996;21(5):320-323.

Sturzenegger M. [Vertebral artery dissection following manipulation of the cervical vertebrae]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1993;123(27-28):1389-1399.

Grayson MF. Horner's syndrome after manipulation of the neck. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;295(6610):1381-1382.

Jaffe TB, McLeskey CH. Position-induced Horner's syndrome. Anesthesiology 1982;56(1):49-50.

Zak SM, Carmody RF. Cerebellar infarction from chiropractic neck manipulation: case report and review of the literature. Ariz Med 1984;41(5):333-337.

Sinel M, Smith D. Thalamic infarction secondary to cervical manipulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74(5):543-546.

Rothrock JF, Hesselink JR, Teacher TM. Vertebral artery occlusion and stroke from cervical self-manipulation. Neurology 1991;41(10):1696-1697.

Miller RG, Burton R. Stroke following chiropractic manipulation of the spine. JAMA 1974;229(2):189-190.

Easton JD, Sherman DG. Cervical manipulation and stroke. Stroke 1977;8(5):594-597.

Gittinger JW, Jr. Occipital infarction following chiropractic cervical manipulation. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 1986;6(1):11-13.

Donzis PB, Factor JS. Visual field loss resulting from cervical chiropractic manipulation. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;123(6):851-852.

Ponge T, Cottin S, Ponge A, et al. [Vertebro-basilar vascular accident after manipulation of the cervical spine]. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic 1989;56(7):545-548.

Teasell RW, Marchuk Y. Vertebro-basilar artery stroke as a complication of cervical manipulation. Crit Rev Phys Rehab Med 1994;6:121-129.

Pratt-Thomas HR, Berger KE. Cerebellar and spinal injuries after chiropractic manipulation. JAMA 1947;133:600-603.

Krieger D, Leibold M, Bruckmann H. [Dissections of the vertebral artery following cervical chiropractic manipulations]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1990;115(15):580-583.

Zauel D, Carlow TJ. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia following cervical manipulation. Ann Neurol 1977;1(3):308.

Fast A, Zinicola DF, Marin EL. Vertebral artery damage complicating cervical manipulation. Spine 1987;12(9):840-842.

Frisoni GB, Anzola GP. Vertebrobasilar ischemia after neck motion. Stroke 1991;22(11):1452-1460.

Terrett AG, Webb MN. Vertebrobasilar accidents (VA) following cervical spine adjustment manipulation. J Aust Chiro Assoc 1982;12(5):24-27.

Roche L, Colin M, DeRougemont J, et al. Lesions traumatiques de la colonne cervicale et attaintes de l'artere vertebrale: responsabilite d'un examen medical. Ann Med Lég 1963;43:232-235.

Chapman-Smith D. Cervical manipulation and vertebral artery injury. Chiropract Rep 1994;8(3):1-6.

Frisoni GB, Anzola GP. Neck manipulation and stroke. Neurology 1990;40(12):1910.

Hamann GF, Felber S, Schimrigk K. Cervicocephalic artery dissections and chiropractic manipulations. Lancet 1993;342(8863):114.

Hamann G, Felber S, Haas A, et al. Cervicocephalic artery dissections due to chiropractic manipulations. Lancet 1993;341(8847):764-765.

Hillier CE, Gross ML. Sudden onset vomiting and vertigo following chiropractic neck manipulation. Postgrad Med J 1998;74(875):567-568.

Sherman DG, Hart RG, Easton JD. Abrupt change in head position and cerebral infarction. Stroke 1981;12(1):2-6.

Lewit K. [Complications following chiropractic manipulations]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1972;97(19):784.

Licht PB, Christensen HW, Hojgaard P, et al. Vertebral artery flow and spinal manipulation: a randomized, controlled and observer-blinded study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998;21(3):141-144.

Peters M, Bohl J, Thomke F, et al. Dissection of the internal carotid artery after chiropractic manipulation of the neck. Neurology 1995;45(12):2284-2286.

Mas JL, Henin D, Bousser MG, et al. Dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery and cervical manipulation: a case report with autopsy. Neurology 1989;39(4):512-515.

Brownson RJ, Zollinger WK, Madeira T, et al. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss following manipulation of the cervical spine. Laryngoscope 1986;96(2):166-170.

Simnad VI. Acute onset of painful ophthalmoplegia following chiropractic manipulation of the neck. Initial sign of intracranial aneurysm. West J Med 1997;166(3):207-210.

Jumper JM, Horton JC. Central retinal artery occlusion after manipulation of the neck by a chiropractor. Am J Ophthalmol 1996;121(3):321-322.

Segal DH, Lidov MW, Camins MB. Cervical epidural hematoma after chiropractic manipulation in a healthy young woman: case report. Neurosurgery 1996;39(5):1043-1045.

Zupruk GM, Mehta Z. Brown-Sequard syndrome associated with posttraumatic cervical epidural hematoma: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 1989;25(2):278-280.

Dabbert O, Freeman DG, Weis AJ. Spinal meningeal hematoma, warfarin therapy, and chiropractic adjustment. JAMA 1970;214(11):2058.

Shvartzman P, Abelson A. Complications of chiropractic treatment for back pain. Postgrad Med 1988;83(7):57-58, 61.

Kornberg E. Lumbar artery aneurysm with acute aortic occlusion resulting from chiropractic manipulation: a case report. Surgery 1988;103(1):122-124.

Lievre JA. Paraplegie due aux manoeuvres d'un chiropractor. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoart 1953;20:708-709.

Davis C. Osteopathic manipulation resulting in damage to spinal cord. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;291(6508):1540-1541.

Padua L, Padua R, LoMonaco M, et al. Radiculomedullary complications of cervical spinal manipulation. Spinal Cord 1996;34(8):488-492.

Lipper MH, Goldstein JH, Do HM. Brown-Sequard syndrome of the cervical spinal cord after chiropractic manipulation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998;19(7):1349-1352.

Oware A, Herskovitz S, Berger AR. Long thoracic nerve palsy following cervical chiropractic manipulation. Muscle Nerve 1995;18(11):1351.

Kewalramani LS, Kewalramani DL, Krebs M, et al. Myelopathy following cervical spine manipulation. Am J Phys Med 1982;61(4):165-175.

Malmivaara A, Pohjola R. Cauda equina syndrome caused by chiropraxis on a patient previously free of lumbar spine symptoms. Lancet 1982;2(8305):986-987.

Leong WK, Kermode AG. Acute deterioration in Chiari type 1 malformation after chiropractic cervical manipulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;70(6):816-817.

Misra UK, Kalita J, Khandelwal D. Consequences of neck manipulation performed by a non-professional. Spinal Cord 2001;39(2):112-113.

Tseng SH, Lin SM, Chen Y, et al. Ruptured cervical disc after spinal manipulation therapy: report of two cases. Spine 2002;27(3):E80-E82.

Fischer ED. Report of a case of ruptured intervertebral disc following chiropractic manipulation. Kentucky Med J 1943;41:14.

Lanska DJ, Lanska MJ, Fenstermaker R, et al. Thoracic disk herniation associated with chiropractic spinal manipulation. Arch Neurol 1987;44(10):996-997.

Rydell N, Raf L. [Spinal manipulation--treatment associated with a high risk of complications]. Lakartidningen 1999;96(34):3536-3540.

Hooper J. Low back pain and manipulation. Paraparesis after treatment of low back pain by physical methods. Med J Aust 1973;1(11):549-551.

Powell FC, Hanigan WC, Olivero WC. A risk/benefit analysis of spinal manipulation therapy for relief of lumbar or cervical pain. Neurosurgery 1993;33(1):73-79.

Richard J. Disk rupture with cauda equina syndrome after chiropractic adjustment. N Y State J Med 1967;67(18):2496-2498.

Gallinaro P, Cartesegna M. Three cases of lumbar disc rupture and one of cauda equina associated with spinal manipulation (chiropraxis). Lancet 1983;1(8321):411.

Balblanc J, Pretot C, Ziegler F. Vascular complication involving the conus medullaris or cauda equina after vertebral manipulation for an L4-L5 disk herniation. Rev Rhum Engl Ed 1998;65(4):279-282.

Destee A, Lesoin F, Di Paola F, et al. Intradural herniated cervical disc associated with chiropractic spinal manipulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52(9):1113.

Deshayes P, Geffroy Y. Un cas de paralysie plexique superieure accident d'une manipulation vertebrale. Revue Rhum Maladies Osteo-articularies 1962;29(3):137-139.

Attali P. Accidents graves apres une manipulation intempestive par un chiropractor. Rev Rhum 1957;24(9-10):652.

Dan NG, Saccasan PA. Serious complications of lumbar spinal manipulation. Med J Aust 1983;2(12):672-673.

Haldeman S, Rubinstein SM. Cauda equina syndrome in patients undergoing manipulation of the lumbar spine. Spine 1992;17(12):1469-1473.

Heffner JE. Diaphragmatic paralysis following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. Arch Intern Med 1985;145(3):562-564.

Tolge C, Iyer V, McConnell J. Phrenic nerve palsy accompanying chiropractic manipulation of the neck. South Med J 1993;86(6):688-690.

Schram DJ, Vosik W, Cantral D. Diaphragmatic paralysis following cervical chiropractic manipulation: case report and review. Chest 2001;119(2):638-640.

Lewis M, Grundy D. Vertebral osteomyelitis following manipulation of spondylitic necks--a possible risk. Paraplegia 1992;30(11):788-790.

Schmitt H. Axis fracture after chiropractic manipulation on spondylosis carcinomatosa. Manuelle Medizin 1982;20:123-125.

Rinsky LA, Reynolds GG, Jameson RM, et al. A cervical spinal cord injury following chiropractic manipulation. Paraplegia 1976;13(4):223-227.

Schmidley JW, Koch T. The noncerebrovascular complications of chiropractic manipulation. Neurology 1984;34(5):684-685.

Stuart PJ, Bernstein T. A case of subdural hematoma and temporal bone fracture as complications of chiropractic manipulation. J Emerg Med 1989;7(6):615-617.

Haldeman S, Rubinstein SM. The precipitation or aggravation of musculoskeletal pain in patients receiving spinal manipulative therapy. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993;16(1):47-50.

Knutson GA. Case studies of upper cervical adjusting errors: the possibility of chiropractic iatrogenesis. Chiropract Res J 1996;3:3.

Ernst E. Chiropractors' use of X-rays. Br J Radiol 1998;71(843):249-251.

Putnam TD, Wu Y. Tracheal rupture following cervical manipulation: late complication posttracheostomy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986;67(1):48-50.

Gorman RF. Cardiac arrest after cervical spine mobilization. Med J Aust 1978;2(4):169-170.

Anonymous. Chiropractors: rupture of brain tumor following adjustment. JAMA 1952;148(8):669.

Weintraub MI. Dormant foramen magnum meningioma 'activated' by chiropractic manipulation. N Y State J Med 1983;83(8-10):1039-1040.

Livingston MC. Spinal manipulation causing injury. A three-year study. Clin Orthop 1971;81:82-86.

Shafrir Y, Kaufman BA. Quadriplegia after chiropractic manipulation in an infant with congenital torticollis caused by a spinal cord astrocytoma. J Pediatr 1992;120(2 Pt 1):266-269.

Nickerson HJ, Silberman TL, Theye FW, et al. Chiropractic manipulation in children. J Pediatr 1992;121(1):172.

L'ecuyer J. Congenital occipitalization of the atlas with chiropractic manipulations. Neb S M J 1959;44:546-550.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

of 5

Follow Yahoo Health on and become a fan on

Follow @YahooHealth on
Related Videos