The causes of cystitis vary according to gender because of the differences in anatomical structure of the urinary tract.
Women and teens with two or more UTIs within a six-month period sometimes are given prophylactic treatment, usually nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim for three to six months. In some cases the woman is advised to take an antibiotic tablet following sexual intercourse.
Other preventive measures for women include drinking large amounts of fluid; voiding frequently, particularly after intercourse; and proper cleansing of the area around the urethra. Children with UTIs should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids and wipe themselves properly after a bowel movement.
In 2003, clinical trials in humans tested a possible vaccine for recurrent urinary tract infections. The vaccine was administered via a vaginal suppository.
Most UTIs in adult males are complications of kidney or prostate infections. They usually are associated with a tumor or kidney stones that block the flow of urine and often are persistent infections caused by drug-resistant organisms. UTIs in men are most likely to be caused by E. coli or another gram-negative bacterium. Risk factors for UTIs in men include lack of circumcision and urinary catheterization. The longer the period of catheterization, the higher the risk of contracting a UTI.
The symptoms of cystitis and pyelonephritis in men are the same as in women.
In children, cystitis causes pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen, frequent urination, blood in the urine, and fever. However, some foods, including citrus juices, caffeine, and carbonated beverages, can irritate the lower urinary tract and mimic the symptoms of an infection.